Litigation is an action brought in court to enforce a particular right. It is the act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself. Litigation involves any lawsuit or other resort to the courts to determine a legal question or matter. When a person begins a civil lawsuit, the person enters into a process called litigation which involves a series of steps that may lead to a court trial and ultimately resolution of the matter. The major steps in a civil case are that Plaintiff commences civil action by filing a complaint with the clerk of the court and personal jurisdiction is obtained over the defendant (e.g. by means of service of process). The parties meet and confer with one another in order to identify issues, discuss the possibility of settlement, and prepare a plan for discovery and disclosure. The court conducts an early pretrial conference (scheduling conference) or else issues a pretrial scheduling order. Defendant may file motions. Some motions must be filed in the first responsive pleading of the defendant. Other motions may be filed later. Defendant files an answer. Parties disclose documents and the discovery process moves forward. Either party may file any additional motions. The court holds the final pre-trial conference. The court conducts trial. The court render, signs, and files the judgment. Post-trial proceedings may or may not occur. Appeal may be taken. Depending on the situation, judgment may or may not be stayed. Appeal is considered based on either briefs or after oral argument. Judgment is rendered on the appeal. Supplementary proceedings may or may not occur. Judgment is enforced.